G-RAD Workshop - Grenoble Radiation Testing of semiconductor devices and systems

ILL4-rdc-1 - Amphi Chadwick (ILL4)

ILL4-rdc-1 - Amphi Chadwick


Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))

Radiation effects in semiconductor devices have come to play a major role in the performance and reliability of today’s electronics. Several reliability questions also arise from new applications (such as self-driving cars, nanosatellites, medical implants etc.). As the demand for radiation hardness testing is on the rise, the availability of radiation facilities providing industrial access to perform these tests seems to be decreasing. Traditional testing methodologies also seem to be limited in face of new semiconductor technologies.

The G-RAD workshop aims to put together testing facilities and radiation experts and stakeholders from industry and academia to stimulate discussion on current and future needs in radiation hardness testing and evaluate limitations of available radiation facilities and possible evolutions.

This short 2 day workshop will take place on December 9th and 10th 2020, in Grenoble, France. Virtual participation is encouraged but presence onsite for participants who are able to travel will also be available.


  1. Map existing and emerging needs from the industry, identify trends and new markets
  2. Assess technical limitations in the existing radiation facilities, gather requirements and propose improvements
  3. Evaluate the current offer – demand and ways to enhance user-facility relationship.

Technical topics

This workshop will focus on the limitations and possible improvements of facilities providing access to radiation testing and on emerging needs from the radiation user community. In particular, it will focus on:

  • Trends in semiconductor technologies, system integration solutions and electronics architectures as well as the resulting demands on radiation hardness testing and quality assurance methods
  • New and established technical installations for radiation testing and future needs.
  • Case studies of radiation testing workflows for innovative technologies
  • Innovation in radiation sensitivity assessment methods
  • Progress in developments of new diagnostics tools and testing solutions

Target audience

  • Companies providing or using radiation testing services and consultancy
  • Facilities and research infrastructures providing access to users in the field of radiation testing.
  • Academics working in the field of radiation effects on semiconductors
  • Organizations involved in the standardisation of testing methods and workflows

Desired Outcomes

Our goal is to gather requirements on the technical and organizational levels for facilities providing radiation testing. We would like to produce a work document at the end of this workshop to be shared among participants, including:

  • Results of polls and surveys answered during the event
  • Technical Description and specifications of facilities present at the event and access modes
  • Main conclusions of these 2 days, including discussions from the technical sessions
  • List of limitations and requirements for facilities (framework to be defined)


  • Wednesday, 9 December
    • 08:30 09:30
      Welcome session: Welcome session and Opening

      This session welcomes all the participants with a general presentation of the IRT Nanoelec and its caracterisation program, which has extensive radiation hardness testing activities.
      Pratical information about the workshop and short announcements will also take place during this session.

      Conveners: Caroline Boudou (Institut Laue-Langevin) , Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF)) , Mr. François Legrand (IRT Nanoelec) , Mr. Hughes Metras (IRT Nanoelec)
      • 08:30
        Welcome 20m
        Speaker: Ennio Capria (IRT Nanoelec PAC-G)
      • 08:50
        The IRT Nanoelec 10m

        This Pitch-presentation will present the French Technological Research Institute Nanoelec and its technoloical programs.

        Speaker: Mr. Hughes Metras (IRT Nanoelec)
      • 09:00
        The PAC-G and the Large-Scale Instruments Characterisation Program 10m

        This pitch-presentation will focus on the large-scale instruement characterisation program of the IRT Nanoelec. It will introduce the idea of a center of expertise in radiation hardness testing based in Grenoble. It will also briefly mention de PAC-G, service platform of the program.

        Speaker: Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))
      • 09:10
        Overview of the RADNEXT project 10m
        Speaker: Ruben Garcia Alia (CERN)
    • 09:30 12:30
      Session 1 - Space environment and corresponding facilities

      This session contains talks related to the Space business.
      A first half is dedicated to users and companies expressing their needs in radiation testing. The second half is focussed on technical presentation of facilities capable of addressing those needs. The session ends with a Q&A session on the limitations of current offer and possible evolutions to address the needs of industry.

      • 09:30
        Irradiation facilities used by CNES for electronic component testing: Selection, limitations and possible evolutions 25m

        “Standard Radiation test methods recommend specific sources and beams in order to emulate space radiation environment for testing electronic components. Such facilities are quite rare and generally dedicated to other activities as research in medical or physics. The following points will be presented:
        - Main characteristics of standard facilities
        - Introduction to irradiation facilities used by CNES
        - Possible issues when preparing a test
        - Recent evolution due to COTS and New Space
        - Limitations of existing facilities and suitable evolutions.”

        Speaker: Françoise Bezerra (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales - CNES)
      • 09:55
        Irradiation facilities to test EEE components for ESA space missions 20m
        • ESCC Test Guidelines, single event effects, Total Ionising Dose, Displacement Damage
        • Facilities (type, species, energies) for assessment or qualification, commonly used facilities, identified facility needs
        • Evolution in space industry wrt EEE components, increasing utilisation of COTS
        • Classification of space missions, results of the COTS initiative working group at ESA
        Speaker: Véronique Ferlet-Cavrois (European Space Agency)
      • 10:15
        Testing complex and highly-integrated RFIC devices under radiation conditions 20m ILL4-1-2 - Salle Séminaires (ILL4)

        ILL4-1-2 - Salle Séminaires



        According to Moore's law, technologies sizes decreases rapidly and allows the integration of multiple functions of integrated circuits into a single component. State-of-the-art radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC), for instance the AD9361, integrates analog-to-digital converters , digital-to-analog converters , synthesizers, filters, amplifiers, mixers as well as several logics and interfaces. Usually, each individual function needs to be tested discretely as for single devices, which is impossible in case of RFICs, since probing the die is not feasible. In this talk, the developed test methodology, setup and the test results of various test campaigns for an RFIC are presented.

        Speaker: Jan Budroweit (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt - DLR)
      • 10:35
        Heavy Ions at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (Ganil) 15m

        GANIL/SPIRAL2 is one of the major nuclear physics facilities in the world with SPIRAL2 selected in the ESFRI list. The accelerator complex can deliver high-intensity light- and heavy-ion beams, ranging from protons up to 238U in the energy range between a few keV to 95 MeV/u, and a wide range of high intensity exotic beams produced either in flight with the LISE fragment separators or with the ISOL method at the SPIRAL-1 facility.
        A dedicated beam line is devoted to industrial applications, including a sample carrier system that has been adapted to industrial needs with CNES support.
        The SPIRAL2 facility is composed of a superconducting LINAC accelerating beams from protons to heavy-ions with A/Q=3 in the energy range from 0.75 MeV/u to 14.5 MeV/u (up to 33 MeV for protons and 20 MeV/u for deuterons). The LINAC is used for the production of neutron beams as well. Continuous (up to 40 MeV) and quasi-monoenergetic spectra (up to 31 MeV) will be available for users in 2021. NFS will be a very powerful tool for physics and fundamental research as well as applications like the transmutation of nuclear waste, design of future fission and fusion reactors, nuclear medicine or test and development of new detectors and components.
        GANIL-SPIRAL2 facilities and their performances will be presented, as well as the dedicated beamlines for radiation effect research activities.

        Speaker: Marie-Helène Moscatello (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (Ganil))
      • 10:50
        Short overview of the irradiation facilities at UCLouvain 15m

        The Cyclotron Resources Centre of UCLouvain has 3 beam lines dedicated to radiation hardness tests (heavy ions, protons and neutrons). The heavy ion and proton facilities are recognized and supported by ESA. The presentation will focus mainly on these two facilities. The beam parameters and equipment will be described. Some new projects for the future will be presented

        Speaker: Nancy Postiau (Université catholique de Louvain - UCL)
      • 11:05
        Proton and heavy ion irradiations at the AGOR cyclotron facility 15m

        The AGOR cyclotron (K=600) is capable of producing proton and heavy ion beams for radiation hardness testing. The experimental setup for proton irradiations (10-190 MeV) and the in-air experimental setup for heavy ion irradiations with O, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe beams at 30 MeV/u will be presented.

        Speaker: Marc Jan van Goethem (RUG)
      • 11:20
        Irradiation facilities at CNA for electronics testing 15m

        The National Centre for Accelerators (CNA - US/CSIC/JA) is one of the Unique Scientific and Technical Infrastructures, declared in Spain. Nowadays, the irradiation testing is one of the strategic lines of this research center and the facility is open to other institutions and private companies.
        The progress of different national research projects has contributed significantly to consolidate the CNA irradiation unit, with especial emphasis on the testing of electronic components and devices to be used in aerospace projects. Recently, it has been also developed a new system to allow low and high temperature irradiation testing. We will present three of the CNA laboratories available to carry out different irradiation tests; which are based on two low LET accelerators and one gamma irradiation system.

        Speaker: Yolanda Morilla Garcia (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores - CNA)
      • 11:35
        Co-60 total dose testing – Old and new challenges 15m

        TID testing is fundamental for nearly all components or systems that operate in radiation environments. Successful TID testing is based on the combination of suitability of the test approach, selection of facility, understanding of radiation effects and test procedure and sophisticated analysis of the results. While much of that seems well established for typical scenarios, new approaches, e.g. with implementation of COTS, demand more flexibility from users, facilities, and operators. This presentation will give an overview of typical and not so typical ways to perform TID testing at Co-60 facilities. Also test methods besides Co-60 gamma will be mentioned. Challenges and problems to be avoided will be discussed. Finally a subjective outlook to future developments will be given.

        Speaker: Jochen Kuhnhenn (Fraunhofer INT)
      • 11:50
        Q & A Session with panelists on the limits of current radiation testing offer and emerging needs 30m

        Session dedicated to identify the requirements of the Space Industry with regards to radiation testing, emerging needs and limitations of the current offer.

        Speakers: Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF)) , Manon Letiche (ILL)
    • 12:30 14:30
      Lunch: Lunch Break
    • 14:30 17:30
      Session 2 - Atmospheric and terrestrial applications

      This session is dedicated to businesses within the realm of neutrons. We focus on the reliability of avionic systems, vehicles and data servers. The first half of the session is dedicated to users and companies expressing their needs in radiation testing. The second half is focussed on technical presentation of facilities capable of addressing those needs. The session ends with a Q&A session on the limitations of current offer and their possible evolutions.

      • 14:30
        Radiation concerns in the automotive industry mechanisms, standards, typical measurements 25m

        Current and future automotive and autonomous applications are complex, forward-looking systems, involving large quantities of silicon, machine computing power and human brains and tears.
        Their quality is prescribed, described and expected by demanding standards. These benevolent dictators set requirements for functional safety and reliability targets and development and manufacturing processes.
        Transient faults, including Single Events are one of the key concerns and the system's FIT rate and ability to manage faults are the principal metrics to demonstrate.
        This presentation will highlight current and future topics dealing with the evaluation, certification and testing of automotive circuits and systems and will show how testing is the decisive, ultimate proof of design's worthiness.

        Speaker: Dan Alexandrescu (IROC Technologies)
      • 14:55
        Ensuring the reliability of power electronic devices with regard to terrestrial cosmic radiation 20m

        Terrestrial cosmic radiation (CR) is a significant factor for the reliability of power electronic devices, for all voltage classes from 150V to 6500V, for all device types and irrespective of the base material. Exact failure rate data are required to balance CR hardness and electrical performance for an optimum system design. Accelerated irradiation testing methods depend on the availability of high-energy/high-flux particle beams to model the terrestrial CR radiation environment and a quick & easy access for industrial users.
        This talk will briefly explain basic CR-induced failure mechanisms. Options and limits of predictive device simulations will be discussed. Accelerated CR testing methods, most of which have already been laid down in a JEDEC specification (JEP151), will be described, with an emphasis on requirements for beam quality, infrastructure and access for industrial testing.

        Speaker: Gerald Soelkner (Infineon)
      • 15:15
        Radiation effects in avionic equipment 20m

        This talk will detail the aeronautic industry needs in radiation testing of avionic equipment and the applicable standards. It will also explore new foreseeable needs and constraints.

        Speaker: Maria Mazurek (Airbus Operations)
      • 15:35
        Radiation Effects in terrestrial environments: servers, telecommunications and automotive 20m

        This talk will cover Single event effects terminology, mechanisms and trends for terrestrial environments including server, networking and AV systems. Single event effects modeling methodologies will be discussed, including modeling of Soft Error Rate (SER) vulnerability factors for intelligent dependable systems, and the needed mitigations at the technology, IP, SOC and system level. The impact of SOC soft error rate performance on functional safety metrics will be also be covered, with a focus on automotive safety critical systems that need to comply with ISO26262 requirements.

        Speaker: Jyotika Athavale (Intel)
      • 15:55
        Chipir: A Fast Neutron Beamline for Single-Event-Effect Tesing 20m

        Neutron single-event-effects are an increasing problem in modern electronic devices and systems, causing a range of substantial reliability issues and failures. To address this problem the UK's ISIS Neutron and Muon Source designed and now operates ChipIr, a fast-neutron beamline that mimics the atmospheric-like neutron spectrum in the 1-800MeV regime, but with a highly enhanced neutron flux, >10^6 n/cm2/s. Using this instrument, industrial and academic researchers perform accelerated fast-neutron testing on a wide variety of electronics to understand the detrimental effects of the natural atmospheric cosmic-ray neutrons on their device and systems and to mitigate their effects. In this talk we will discuss some of the design consideration of the beamline, how it was incorporated onto an existing spallation target station at ISIS and finally how it has been addressing industrial problems in the electronics' industrial sector.

        Speaker: Carlo Cazzaniga (ISIS Neutron and Muon Source)
      • 16:15
        TENIS thermal neutron irradiation facility at the ILL 15m

        TENIS the new irradiation station at ILL will be introduced to the community. The station is under construction and is foreseen to be operational at the beginning of 2021. Details about the project will be given concerning beam characteristics, dosimetry control, mechanical options and beamtime available.

        Speaker: Manon Letiche (Institut Laue-Langevin - ILL)
      • 16:30
        CHARM Radiation Facility at CERN 15m
        Speaker: Ruben Garcia Alia (CERN)
      • 16:45
        LNL- The NEPIR Facility - Fast neutrons 15m

        We describe NEPIR, the fast-neutron irradiation facility under development at the 70 MeV cyclotron SPES facility of the INFN laboratory of Legnaro (LNL). The facility will be used to investigate neutron-induced Single Event Effects (SEE) in microelectronic devices and systems. It will be constructed in stages, according to the available funds. The initial funded configuration, based on a novel thick Be neutron production target, will be operational in 2023. In its final configuration NEPIR will have two target systems: one will deliver a Quasi Mono-energetic Neutron (QMN) beam, of multidisciplinary interest, with an adjustable energy peak in the 20–70 MeV range; the second target will deliver a specialized neutron beam with a continuous energy spectrum resembling that of neutrons at sea-level produced in cosmic ray air-showers in the 1-70 MeV energy range. In closing we describe ways, presently under preparation at LNL, to use the 6 MeV Van der Graaf and the15 MV XTU Tandem of LNL to produce nearly monochromatic fast neutrons that would complement the QMN system of NEPIR allowing one to probe for SEE below 20 MeV.

        Speaker: Jeffery Wyss (INFN Legnaro National Laboratory)
      • 17:00
        Q&A Session on emergent needs and limitations of the current offer for radiation testing facilities 30m
        Speakers: Caroline Boudou (Institut Laue-Langevin) , Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))
  • Thursday, 10 December
    • 09:00 10:40
      Session 3 - Harsh Environments and specific needs

      This session focusses on the specific needs of companies working with harsh environments (nuclear facilities, particle accelerators etc.)

      Convener: Caroline Boudou (Institut Laue-Langevin)
      • 09:00
        Radiation effects on electronics at the ITER Project 30m
        Speaker: Jean-Luc Leray (Consultant)
      • 09:30
        Radiation effects and testing in CERN experiments 15m

        The estimated radiation field in the central particle detectors at the CERN High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will extend to ultra-high TID levels (1Grad). The radiation hardness specifications for the ASICs developed to read-out signals from these detectors will be presented, together with the technology and design choices enabling to meet them. Qualification procedures as well as irradiation facilities typically used for radiation testing will be discussed.

        Speaker: Federico Faccio (CERN)
      • 09:45
        Radiation effects and testing at CERN accelerator 15m
        Speaker: Ruben Garcia Alia (CERN)
      • 10:00
        Radiation testing of measuring technology used in medical radiology 15m

        This contribution aims at presenting the challenges and requirements associated with radiation testing of measuring technology used in the field of medical radiology. The focus lies on radiation testing workflows of devices used for medical LINAC QA, one major market of PTW Dosimetry. Needs related to testing facilities as well as test standardization approaches will be discussed.

        Speaker: Johannes von Vangerow (PTW Dosimetry)
      • 10:15
        Q&A Session on limitations of current offer for radiation testing facilities 25m
        Speakers: Caroline Boudou (Institut Laue-Langevin) , Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))
    • 10:40 12:45
      Session 4 - Alternative Testing Methods

      This session sheds new light on alternative and emerging testing methods, such as lasers, monoenergetic beams and pulsed X-rays.

      Convener: Ruben Garcia Alia (CERN)
      • 10:40
        Recent advances in pulsed X-ray single-event testing 25m
        Speaker: Stephen LaLumondiere (The Aerospace Corporation)
      • 11:05
        Laser testing as an optimized complement of Heavy Ion for SEE testing - experiences from Airbus DS 20m

        Pulsed-laser approaches have demonstrated to be a very interesting tool for SEE testing and offers a great complementarity to heavy ions. This talk will address the basic mechanisms for laser charge generation in semiconductor materials and review the various SEE analyses for which laser testing can have an interest. Several applications performed at Airbus Defence and Space are detailed.

        Speaker: Cécile Weulersse (Airbus Defense and Space)
      • 11:25
        Fast neutron GENESIS platform 15m

        The GEnerator of NEutrons for Science and IrradiationS (GENESIS) produces a flux of fast neutrons at an energy of 14 MeV (or 2.5 MeV). The neutron source is provided by an electrostatic accelerator delivering 220 keV deuterons onto a tritiated (or deutered) target. It is used both for academic research (nuclear physics experiments, detector tests) and irradiations. Lately it was widely used to irradiate micro-electronics components in order to investigate their resistance to neutron flux. The facility is operated by the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (CNRS, G-INP, UGA) located on the scientific polygon of Grenoble, next to ILL and ESRF.

        Over the last few years, the facility was upgraded mainly to boost the neutron flux and improve the reliability of the machine. A compact ECR ion source was installed to produce a continuous and intense deuteron beam. Significant shielding was also added to the existing infrastructure in order to support the neutron flux increase. Presently, the maximum 14 MeV neutron flux reaches 5.10^7 n.s^-1.cm^-2 at the location of the sample.

        The facility and its performances will be presented, as well as different types of applications.

        Speaker: Benjamin Cheymol (Laboratory of Subatomic Physics & Cosmology (LPSC))
      • 11:40
        Neutron Irradiation Capabilities at the PIAF Ion Accelerator Facility PIAF 15m

        At the accelerator facility PIAF of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), proton and deuteron beams are used to produce monoenergetic neutron fields in open geometry (full solid angle) in a low scatter hall using various nuclear reactions. The energy range of the monoenergetic neutron fields ranges from 140 keV to 19 MeV with a gap between 8 MeV and 14 MeV where no monoenergetic neutron source exists. The flux densities range between 5·104 cm-2s-1 and 2·106 cm-2s-1 at 10 cm from the production target which makes these fields suitable for testing the energy dependence of radiation effects in microelectronic components. The monoenergetic fields are complemented by ‘white’ collimated high-intensity beams with a maximum neutron energy of about 17 MeV and flux densities up to 1·108 cm-2s-1 are achieved. Other radiation sources available at the PTB comprise an ion microprobe with proton and alpha beams and a 50 MeV electron linac with bremsstrahlung and electron beams. Access to neutron beams up to 200 MeV is possible via a collaboration with iThemba LABS in Cape Town.

        Speaker: Ralf Nolte (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB))
      • 11:55
        Pulsed Synchrotron focalised X-rays and XFEL 15m
        Speaker: Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))
      • 12:10
        Q & A Session with panelists on the limits of current radiation testing offer and emerging needs 30m
    • 12:45 14:00
    • 14:00 15:30
      Session 5 - Facility and user relationship - Expert Panel

      This session is dedicated to the convergence of industry needs and organisational aspects of facilities.
      A keynote devoted to the subject is followed by an expert panel.
      Active participation of the attendants will be encouraged.

      Convener: Ennio Capria (IRT Nanoelec PAC-G)
      • 14:00
        The Dissimilar Dyad: Radiation Facility and Industrial Customer. Opportunities and perspectives for creating a successful cooperation 30m

        Radiation hardness assurance procedures nowadays often require tests with high-energetic protons, heavy ions or neutron for simulating the harsh radiation environment close to reality. These particles are generated by nuclear physics facilities – like particle accelerator or research reactors – which are located exclusively at universities or national research institutions. Thus, industry inevitably has to purchase a service from a publicly funded organization. This may potentially lead to “cultural” barriers in collaboration of the dissimilar dyad. On the other hand, such a cooperation is creating an opportunity to foster knowledge and technology transfer from science to industry and back.

        An in-depth case study has been performed focusing on the relationship between radiation facility and its customer. The factors influencing this relationship including the mechanisms of interaction have been explored with a set of more than 30 expert interviews with stakeholders from industry, agencies and irradiation facilities. The findings confirm that influencing factors derived from the social capital dimensions play an important role for the success of the relationship. The keynote will address and discuss issues like availability, accessibility, offering and demand, policy of the facility, motivation and mutual trust. On the basis of the acquired and distilled information, recommendations will be presented enabling and fostering successful cooperation. A set of best practices are highlighted that support facilities who intend to start a service provision in this field with the aim of creating win-win situations for both sides.

        Speaker: Gerd Datzmann (Datzmann interact and innovate Gmbh)
      • 14:30
        Facility and user relantionship - Expert Panel 55m

        This expert panel will focus on the access modes and organisational aspects of facilities. The convergence between industrial and academic needs in the use of these large-scale facilities will be addressed.
        Recommendations for facilitating and strengthening successful cooperation between industry (radiation testing) users and research facilities will be drawn from these discussions.

        Speakers: Gerald Soelkner (Infineon) , Jerome Beaucour (Institut Laue-Langevin) , Jochen Kuhnhenn (Fraunhofer INT) , Philippe Roche (STMicroelectronics) , Ruben Garcia Alia (CERN)
      • 15:25
        Closing 5m
        Speaker: Ennio Capria (IRT Nanoelec PAC-G)
    • 15:30 16:10
      Visits: Visit of facilities: ESRF, ILL and LPSC
      Convener: Caroline Boudou (Institut Laue-Langevin)
      • 15:30
        Visit of TENIS at ILL 10m

        Thermal and Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Sattion

        Speaker: Manon Letiche (ILL)
      • 15:40
        Visit of ID09 at ESRF 10m
        Speaker: Ennio Capria (European Synchrotron (ESRF))
      • 15:50
        Visit of GENESIS at the LPSC/CNRS 10m
        Speaker: Benjamin Cheymol (Laboratory of Subatomic Physics & Cosmology (LPSC))
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